Coal preparation plants in Turkey

Currently, there are more than 27 coal preparation plants in Turkey, varying in capacities from 50 tph to 800 tph, 12 treating all the country’s R. O. M. bituminous coal, and over 15 are treating about 30 % of the country’s total lignite production.

Bituminous coal preparation plants

Table 5: Bituminous coal preparation Plants in Turkey (over 500 tph capacity)

Name and capacity Equipment Products/mm
Zonguldak Main 500 tph Baum Jig

Feldspar Acco-Jig

100~10 Clean Coal
10~0. 5 Clean Coal
10~0. 5 Middling*
Park Energy Kozlu, Uziilmez 250 tph, each Drewboy Bath
Dense Medium
Cyclone Thickening & Filtration
100~10 Clean Coal
10~0. 5 Clean Coal
10~0. 5 Middling *
0. 5~0 Filter Cake
Catalagzi 750 tph Baum Jig Feldspar Acco-Jig 100~10 Clean Coal
10~0. 5 Clean Coal
10~0. 5 Middling*

* Feed of thermal power plant

The other bituminous coal preparation plants are: Armutcuk (220 tph), Amasra (210 tph), Deka (150 tph), Demir, Soyer, Yilmazlar ( 80 tph each), Arslanlar, Ari ( 50 tph each).
Zonguldak Main Washery which was the largest coal washery in Turkey has been in operation since
1957. The capacity was 1 000 tph which was consisted of two Baum jigs to treat the coarse coal and Feldspar Acco-Jig and dense medium cyclone to treat fine coal in two parallel circuits. Slime ( — 0. 5 mm) was cleaned by flotation. Nowadays , the capacity was reduced to 500 tph, only jigs are used to treat coarse and fine coal, while slime is thickened and filtered in order to produce thermal power plant feed.
In the following, the new mobile coal preparation plant constructed in Uziilmez and Kozlu in Zonguldak district, will be presented.
Zonguldak Uziilmez and Kozlu coal washeries
In February 2006, Park Energy has been constructed two coal washery with 250 tph capacity each to treat both Uziilmez and Kozlu coals. Uziilmez plant has been started to operate on March, while Kozlu plant is operated for testing. In both plant, 150 tph capacity Drewboy bath cleans (100~10 mm) coarse coal at 1. 75 g/cm3 density. The maximum allowable ash is 13%.
Fine coal (10~0. 5 mm) is cleaned by 60 cm. diameter dense medium cyclone with 150 tph capacity at 1. 6 g/cm3. The float (10~0. 5 mm clean coal) containing maximum 9% ash in it is dewatered by using a centrifuge to reduce the moisture content below 8%. The underflow of the primary cyclone (50 tph capacity), is recleaned in the 50 cm in diameter secondary dense medium cyclone at 1. 9 g/cm3 density. Magnetite has been used as a heavy medium in both circuits. The float of the second cyclone
(called as middling) is centrifuged to reduce the moisture below 12%.
The slime ( — 0. 5 mm coal) is flocculated, thickened and filtered by using a disc filter to produce a cake with 24% moisture in it . It is then mixed with the second cyclone’s float material and sent to Catalagzi power plant for electricity generation.

Lignite coal preparation plants

Lignite coal washeries were constructed by T. K. I. in Soma in 1952 and in TunCbilek in 1957. Up to 1990, no new coal preparation plant was constructed to clean lignites. Afterwards, due to the strict environmental regulations and prevention of utilization of low quality coals for domestic heating purposes, over 15 lignite coal washeries with capacities between 50 tph to 800 tph have been built. The names and short descriptions of lignite coal preparation plants are given in Table 6.

Table 6: Lignite Coal Preparation Plants (over 300 tph capacity) in Turkey

Name and Capacity Equipment Products/mm
ELi Isiklar-DerekOy 800 tph Double compartment dense medium drum

Dense medium cyclone (primary and secondary)


150~18 Clean coal

18~0. 5 Clean coal
18~0. 5 Middling

0. 5~0. 1 clean coal

ELi-Eynez-imbat[6] 500 tph Drewboy bath (primary and secondary)

Dense medium cyclone

85~16 Clean coal
85~16 Middling16~0. 5 clean coal
GLi-Tuncbilek 700 tph Dense medium drums nally jig Dense medium cyclone


150~18 Clean Coal

18~0. 5 clean coal
18~0. 5 Middling

18 ~0. 5 Clean coal 0. 5~0. 1 Clean coal

GLi-Omerler 600 tph Dense medium vessels (primary and secondary)

Dense medium cyclones (primary and secondary)


150~18 Clean coal 150 — 18 Middling

18~0. 5 Clean coal 18~0. 5 Middling

0. 5~0. 1 Clean coal

Park-Energy-Cayirhan 600 tph Drewboy bath 100~30 Clean coal*
30 ~0 Untreated*
Park Enerji-Seyitomer 350 tph Drewboy bath (primary and secondary)

Dense medium cyclone

100~18 Clean coal
100~18 Middling18~0 Clean coal

* Mixed together as a feed to thermal power plant

The other coal preparation plants which are constructed and operated by private sectors are: Soma- Giirmin (200 tph), DeniSMobile Coal Washery (150 tph), Soma -Hiistas (150 tph), Uyar-Darkale (75 tph), Orhaneli (150 tph), Aydin Lignite (80 tph), Celikler (75 tph), Yeniceltek-Merzifon (150 tph), Milten-Yenikoy (50 tph). In the following, the lignite coal preparation plants with capacities above 600 tph will be presented.

Soma-Isiklar-Derekoy coal preparation plant

Soma Isiklar-Derekoy plant has been started to operate in 2005 to clean coal produced in open-pit mine. The plant is consisted of double compartment dense medium drum to clean 150 ~ 18 mm coarse coal , dense medium cyclones to treat 18~0. 5 mm fines and spirals to clean 0. 5~0. 1 mm slimes. The first compartment of the drum which makes separation at 1. 60 g/cm3 density produces a clean coal while it’s sink is conveyed into the second compartment to produce a middling and a final refuse at 1. 85 g/cm3 density. Dense medium cyclones treat fines in two steps, at densities 1. 60 and 1. 85 g/cm3. The clean coal obtained in primary cyclone is screened through 10 mm screen and 18~10 mm clean coal is sent to a bin while 10~0. 5 mm clean coal is dried by a centrifuge. The sink of the primary cyclone is the feed of the secondary one which produces a middling and a refuse.
The 0. 5—0. 1 mm fines are cleaned in spirals whose clean coals are dewatered by a centrifugal drier.

Omerler coal preparation plant

Omerler Coal Preparation plant has been started into operation in 1993. It is based on dense medium separation to clean coal coming from open ~ pit and underground mines. 150 ~ 18 mm coarse coal is washed in two steps in trough type vessels. The first cleaning is carried out at 1. 45 sp. gr. to produce clean coal; the sink of the first vessel is cleaned in the second vessel at 1. 80 sp. gr. to produce middling and final refuse.
18~0. 5 mm. fines are cleaned similarly in dense medium cyclones in two steps, at 1. 45 and 1. 8 sp. gr. The 0. 5~0. 1 mm. size fines are cleaned in Reichert Spirals.
The clean coals in 50~18 mm and +50 mm sizes are used for domestic heating purposes while 18~0. 5 mm coal is consumed in industry. The middlings are consumed in thermal power plant for electricity generation.