Recent Developments in Coal Preparation Practices in Turkey

Coal is an important major source of energy in Turkey. Till 1985, the share of coal in electricity generation has been above 42%, however, it decreased to 17% in 2003. In the same period (1985~ 2003), the imported natural gas contribution in electricity generation increased from 0. 7% to 45%. Presently, imported natural gas becomes the primary energy source in electricity production. In 2004, the total energy demand of Turkey was 87. 7 MTEP whose 67. 8 MTEP portion was supplied by import. So, the country is being heavily dependent on foreign energy raw material.

Turkey has a total of 9. 7 billion tons of coal reserves.

Table 1 shows the types of coals and their distributions in the reserves.

Table 1: Turkish coal reserves( X 106 tons)

Coal type Reserves
Possible Probable Proved Total
Bituminous 425 368 550 1 343
Lignite 410 626 7 339 8 375
Total 835 994 7 889 9 718

Turkish bituminous coals

Turkey’s bituminous coals are located on the Western Black Sea region which is called Zonguldak Coal Basin: Five main underground mines, namely, Kozlu, Karadon, Uziilmez, Armutcuk and Amasra are in operation. Karadon, Kozlu, and Uziilmez coals are coking coals, which form 66. 8% of bituminous coal reserves, Armutcuk coal is a semi-coking and Amasra coal in non-coking coals; their share in the bituminous coal reserves are 2. 7% and 30. 5% , respectively.

Turkey’ s bituminous coals are exploited and washed mainly by a public organization called as Turkish Hard Coal Enterprises.

All the bituminous coal produced are washed. The production, consumption and import amounts and the uses of bituminous coals are shown in Table 2.

Table 2: Bituminous coal production, consumption and imports( X 103tons)

Years Production Imports Consumption
R. O. M. Washed Coking Steam
2000 3 251 2 259 5 958 7 215 15 393
2001 3 370 2 357 1 170 5 036 11 039
2002 3 313 2 245 6 207 7 524 13 756
2003 3 090 2 059 3 610 12 559 17 535
2004 2 843 1 946 2 969 13 461 18 904
2005 2 856 2 115 3 628 10 095 15 820

 

The bituminous coal consumption of Turkey was 8. 2 million tons in 1990, however, it increased to 18. 9 million tons in 2004 with increment rate of 6. 1% per year. In 2004, the consumption of bituminous coal is distributed as follows: 51. 2% industry, 15. 7% coke production and rest electricity production and others. Around 19% of the domestic bituminous coal produced was consumed by iron and steel industry, while 62 % was utilized in electricity production.

Turkish lignites

The lignite reserves are distributed in all over Turkey. The major ones are located in SE and western part of Turkey. The quality of reserves is shown in Table 3.

Table 3 Heating values of Turkish lignites

kcal/kg Distribution in the reserves/ %
1 000—1 500 56.0
1 501 — 2 000 12.0
2 001 — 3 000 23. 5
3 001 — 4 000 5. 1
>4 000 3. 4

As seen in Table 3, Turkish lignites are mostly consisted of low calorific value coals. Almost half of the reserves contain high ash (>25%) and high S (>1% total S). Most of the sulfur is organic.

85% of the lignite reserves are operated by two public companies, namely Turkish Coal Enterprises (TKl) and Electricity Production Co. (EUAS), while the rest is under the control of private sector. The share of lignite production of TKlis 57%. The lignite reserves are exploited by both underground (10 %) and open-pit methods (90%). The production, consumption and utilization of lignites are shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Production , consumption and utilization of Turkish lignites( X 103 tons)

Years Consumption
Production Consumption Industry Electricity Heating
2000 60 854 64 384 6 977 52 478 4 926
2001 59 572 61 010 5 520 52 785 2 583
2002 51 660 51 446 6 141 41 933 3 246
2003 46 168 46 117 7 010 34 788 4 183
2004 43 709 43 702 6 177 37 325 4 700
2005 53 500 53 495 5 491 47 233 5 300

As seen in Table 4, lignite production and consumption in electricity production is decreased year by year. In 2000, 81. 5% of the lignite was consumed in the electricity production, while in 2003, it decreased to 75%. Although, most of the lignite production is still consumed in electricity production, the share of coal in primary energy sources is decreased drastically.